Luca is a founding partner of ArbLit and a door tenant of Fountain Court Chambers, London.
Until 2019 he was also a Full Professor at the School of Law of the Università Cattolica di Milano, where he held the chair of Private International Law and also taught Law of International Arbitration.
For the past fifteen years Luca’s practice has focused primarily on arbitration and international litigation.
He is one of Italy’s top arbitration specialists and is highly regarded abroad, also through his writings (which include an authoritative Commentary on arbitration law in Italy and scholarly contributions in a variety of prestigious publications) and his activities in professional bodies, including the International Court of Arbitration of the ICC (from 2009 to 2015), the Court of the LCIA (of which he is a member since 2016 and a Vice-President since 2019), the Arbitration Committee of the International Bar Association (of which he is a past Vice-Chair) and the Committee on International Commercial Arbitration of the International Law Association, of which he was corapporteur on three projects.
He was the delegate for the Italian Government at the 33rd and 34th Sessions of the UNCITRAL Working Group on International Arbitration (2000 and 2001). Prior to forming ArbLit, he was one of the spearheads of his previous firm’s prestigious arbitration practice.
He has a vast experience as counsel and as presiding, sole and party-appointed arbitrator in ad hoc and institutional domestic and international arbitrations in many different seats and under a variety of rules (ICC, LCIA, Milan Chamber of Arbitration, Stockholm Arbitration Chamber, Danish Institute of Arbitration, Geneva Chamber of Commerce, Swiss Chamber of Commerce in Milan, UNCITRAL, Cairo Regional Centre for International Commercial Arbitration, European Development Fund) and laws governing the merits. As arbitrator he has sat in cases applying the laws of Italy, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Brazil, Costa-Rica, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, England, France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Senegal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland, as well as the Vienna Convention on the International Sale of Goods and international law.
His experience in commercial arbitration covers contractual disputes, post-M&A, distributorship agreements, energy, construction, telecoms, gas-price review, financial transactions, defense, aviation and disputes involving States and State entities.
He has significant expertise in investor-State arbitration, having been involved as counsel or arbitrator in several high profile ICSID and UNCITRAL investor-state arbitrations, including as counsel for the successful claimant in Saipem v. Bangladesh and in two cases brought by Italian holders of Argentine bonds against the Republic of Argentina, Giovanni Alemanni and others v. Argentine Republic and Ambiente Ufficio S.p.A. and others v. Argentine Republic, in both of which the ICSID tribunals upheld jurisdiction. He is currently acting for several groups of foreign investors in UNCITRAL proceedings under different bilateral investment treaties and the Energy Charter Treaty against the Czech Republic in the photovoltaic sector.
He also acts as advisor and counsel in transnational court litigation, with a particular focus on issues of public international law and of conflict of laws and jurisdiction, as well as in court proceedings relating to arbitration. He has appeared as an expert on Italian law, arbitration law, conflict of laws and jurisdictions and competition law in proceedings before arbitral tribunals (including in an ICSID case) and domestic courts (most recently in Australia, England, France, Italy, Sweden and the United States).
Luca is a leading expert on the interactions between arbitration and competition and merger control law, as well as in private antitrust litigation. He was the co-chair of the Joint Working Group of the ICC Competition and Arbitration and ADR Commissions on Antitrust Follow-on Actions.
He is Vice-President of the Court of the LCIA and a member of the Comité Asesor del Pleno de la Corte de Arbitraje de Madrid. He is listed on the ICSID Panel of Arbitrators on the appointment of the Republic of Italy. He is an alternate member of the FIA Driver Contract Recognition Board.
Luca has been listed in Chambers Global since 2000 and is ranked in Band 1, Most in Demand Arbitrators, for Italy and in Band 2 Most in Demand Arbitrators Europe-Wide in Chambers Global and Chambers Europe since 2016, which have called him “driven and passionate” and referred to “his impressive arbitration practice” and “razor-sharp legal mind” and to the view that “he is a top arbitrator and truly international”. He is also “highly recommended for domestic and international arbitration” in the 2015 edition of Legal 500 and is described in GAR 100 as “no stranger to breaking new ground at ICSID”.
Who’s Who Legal, who listed Luca as a Thought Leader in 2017 and 2018 and put him first amongst the Most Highly Regarded arbitration practitioners in Italy, says of him that he “draws effusive praise from international sources who describe him as ‘an excellent academic and arbitrator‘”. Who’s Who Legal also describes him as “very competent and extremely balanced” and a “dream arbitrator” with “an excellent reputation for insightful, value added work” and “very well known for investment disputes”.
Before founding ArbLit, Luca served as a member of the office of the Legal Advisor at the Bank for International Settlements (the “Bank of the Central Banks”) in Basel, Switzerland (1978-1984). For the following thirty years he was a partner in two of Italy most prestigious law firms: Chiomenti, where he headed its Brussels office and its International, European and Competition law department (1984-2000), and Bonelli Erede Pappalardo (now BonelliErede) where he was a member of the European/antitrust law and of the International Litigation and Arbitration practice groups; he was also in charge of the Dispute Resolution Desk of that firm’s London office (2001-2014).
Throughout his carreer Luca has advised and represented top private and public Italian and international clients in a broad variety of matters (including the European Commission before the European Court of Justice and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York in relation to proceedings before the Iran-US Claims Tribunal).
These have ranged from his areas of main academic specialization (conflict of laws and jurisdictions, arbitration and public international law) to banking and finance and all aspects of European Union law and competition law (mergers, cartels and abuses of dominant position, state aids, public procurement, telecommunications, energy, circulation of services and establishment, particularly in the area of financial services and telecommunications law). He was one of the first, and for many years of the most active and reputed, competition lawyers in Italy as evidenced by his rankings in the specialized publications. He was particularly involved in the initial phase of privatizations and liberalizations in Italy, having amongst others acted for the first private mobile telephone operator upon its entry into the Italian market. His activity as a competition lawyer and his involvement for his other areas of expertise in the transactions handled by his previous firms allowed him to gain experience in a variety of economic sectors and areas of law, including corporate and M&A transactions, energy, telecommunications, utilities, financial and regulated markets, gaming.
Luca has appeared frequently before Italian courts, including the Council of State and the Constitutional Court, as well as the Court of Justice and the General Court of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights, and administrative authorities (the European Commission and the Italian Competition Authority and telecom regulator).
Luca is the author and editor or co-editor of six books and one commentary and over 150 articles published in Italian and international law reviews and other publications on topics of private international law, the law of arbitration, public international law, European Union law, competition law, telecommunications law, international financial law (Publications). He is a regular speaker at, and organizer of, academic and practitioners’ conferences, symposia, workshops and courses.
In addition to his tenured position at the Law School of the Catholic University of Milan (and prior to that in several other Italian Universities), he has held the following teaching and research appointments: Lecturer at the Hague Academy of International Law, Private International Law Session (2003); Visiting fellow, Wolfson College, Cambridge, England (1990 and 1995), and Max Planck Institut für Internationales und Ausländisches Privatrecht, Hamburg, Germany (1987); Visiting Professor, Institut d’Etudes Européennes of the Free University of Brussels (1991-92); Visiting Scholar, Harvard Law School (1996; 2000 and 2002); Visiting Scholar, Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California at Berkeley (1998 and 1999); Visiting Professor, University of Paris II (2007); Lecturer at the External Program of the Hague Academy of International Law in Buenos Aires (2012); Scholar in Residence at the Center for Transnational Litigation, Arbitration and Commercial Law at New York University Law School (2014); Visiting Global Professor of International Commercial Arbitration, New York University Law School (2018).
He held the General Course of Private International Law at the 2018 session of the Hague Academy of International Law on “The Legal Framework of Transnational Commercial Transactions“.
Commentario breve al diritto dell’arbitrato interno e internazionale (2nd ed), Cedam, Padova, 2018, (co-editor with Massimo Benedettelli and Claudio Consolo)
Arbitrage commercial international et lois de police: considérations sur les conflits de juridictions dans le commerce international, in Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, vol. 315, 2006, pp. 269-501 (course delivered at the 2003 Session of the Hague Academy of International Law)
“International commercial arbitration and private international law”, in F. Ferrari, A. Bjorklund and S. Kröll (Eds.), Cambridge compendium of international commercial arbitration, forthcoming, 2019
“International Commercial Arbitration”, in J. Basedow, F. Ferrari, P. De Miguel Asensio, G. Ruhl (Eds), Encyclopedia of Private International Law, Edward Elgar, forthcoming 2017
“Applying the rules governing the merits in international commercial arbitration”, in F. Ferrari & F. Rosenfeld, (eds.), Inherent powers in international adjudication, 2018, 269-295
“International Commercial Arbitration”, in J. Basedow, F. Ferrari, P. De Miguel Asensio, G. Ruhl (Eds), Encyclopedia of Private International Law, Edward Elgar, vol. 1, 2018, 86-97
“When, Why and How must Arbitrators Apply Overriding Mandatory Provisions?”, in F. Ferrari (ed.), The Impact of EU Law on international commercial arbitration, Juris, 2017, 351-382
Party Autonomy and the Rules Applicable to the Merits in International Arbitration”, in F. Ferrari (ed.), Limits to Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration, Juris, 2016, 331-362
“L’autorité de la chose jugée des décisions relatives à l’annulation des sentences: l’expérience récente des Etats Unis” in Revue de l’arbitrage, 2016
“Representative Aspects of Mass Claim Proceedings” in ICC Dossier XIV on Class & Group Actions in Arbitration, 2016 (with F. Ponzano)
“Autonomia negoziale e ruolo del diritto materiale nell’arbitrato internazionale e interno” in Rivista dell’Arbitrato, 2016, 1-31 (also in Atti del 10° Convengno Internazionale della Società Italiana degli Studiosi del Diritto Civile, 2016, 203-238).
“Usages and Implied Terms in Italy”, in F. Gélinas (ed.) Trade Usages and Implied Terms in the Age of Arbitration, Oxford, 2016, 59-80 (with G. Marchisio)
“Confidentiality within Arbitration”, in Confidential and Restricted Access to Information in International Arbitration, ASA Special Series No. 43, 2016, 1-20 (with F. Ponzano)
“Where is Investor-State Arbitration Heading? Reflections on the Debate over EU Investor Protection Agreements”, in International Arbitration Under Review, Essays in Honour of John Beechey, ICC, 2015, p. 319-342
“Ethics and the Law Applicable to the Merits in Arbitration”, Mélanges en l’honneur du Professeur Pierre Mayer, LGDJ, Paris, 2015, 753-769
“Remedies against state interference with arbitration”,  International Arbitration Law Review, 27-33
“Arbitration under Investment Protection Agreements between the EU and Non-Member States”, World Arbitration Reports, Rel. 8-2015 (with Federica Iorio)
“The enforcement of annulled awards: further reflections in light of Thai Lao-Lignite“, 25 The American Review of International Arbitration, 47-61 (2014)
“The Inherent Powers of Arbitrators”, Final Report of the Committee on International Commercial Arbitration of the International Law Association presented at the Washington, DC Conference, May 2014 (co-rapporteur with Mark Friedman)
“Class arbitration in Europe?”, in A. Nuyts & N.E. Hatzimihail (Eds.), Cross-Border Class Actions, The European Way, Sellier, 2013, 209
“The enforcement of annulled awards: an important step in the right direction”, Cahiers de l’Arbitrage / Paris Journal of International Arbitration, 2013, 1027
“EU Merger Control Commitments and Arbitration: Reti Televisive Italiane v. Sky TV”, Arbitration International, 2013, 223-242 (in Italian in Rivista dell’arbitrato, 2013, 227-246)
“International Arbitration and Domestic Law”, International Commercial Arbitration – Different Forms and Their Features (G. Cordero Moss, ed.), Cambridge University Press, 2013, 40-59
“Las normas imperativas y el arbitraje internacional”, in Cuestiones claves del arbitraje international (E. Gaillard, D. P. Fernandez Arroyo, eds), Bogota, 2013, 189-224
“The control system of arbitral awards: a pro-arbitration critique of Michael Reisman’s ‘Normative architecture of international commercial arbitration’ “, Arbitration ? The Next Fifty Years, ICCA Congress Series No. 16, 2012, 74-102
“Arbitration and Mandatory Rules”, American Review of International Arbitration, 2012, 49-74
“Enhancing the Effectiveness of Arbitration in Asia: Towards Less State Interference?”, Transnational Dispute Management, December 2011, Issue 5
“Competition Law and Arbitration”, Competition Law International, November 2011, 12
“The impact of National Law and Courts on International Commercial Arbitration: Mythology, Physiology, Pathology, Remedies and Trends”, Les Cahiers de l’Arbitrage – The Paris International Arbitration Journal, 2011, 663
“Res judicata”, Post Award Issues (P. Tercier, ed.), ASA Special Series No. 38, 2011, 127 (in Portuguese: “Os efeitos de coisa julgada de sentenças arbitrais internacionais”, Arbitragem e Comércio Internacional, Estudos em Homagem a Luiz Olavo Baptista, Sao Paulo, 2013, 735)
“Arbitration and the draft revised Brussels I Regulation: Seeds of home country control and of harmonization?”, Journal of Private International Law, 2011, 423 (in Italian in Rivista dell’Arbitrato, 2011, 187)
“L’Italia e l’arbitrato internazionale”, Corriere Giuridico, 2011/1 (with Massimo V. Benedettelli)
“Arbitration and Competition Law: the Position of Courts and of Arbitrators”, Arbitration International, 2011, 1 and Revista de Arbitragem e Mediaciao (in Portuguese), 2010, 162
“Confidentiality in International Commercial Arbitration”, Final Report of the Committee on International Commercial Arbitration of the International Law Association adopted at the Hague Conference, August 2010 (co-rapporteur with Mark Friedman), Arbitration International, 2012, 355
“Requiem pour le régime dualiste de l’arbitrage? Rèflexions sur la réforme italienne de l’arbitrage international”, Arbitrage interne et international (A. Bonomi, A. Bochatay, Eds.), Genève, 2010, 217 (also Rivista di diritto processuale, 2010, 1267 in Italian and in Revista Brasileira de Arbitragem, in Portuguese)
“Arbitrage et droit de la concurrence: vers un consensus”, Les Cahiers de l’Arbitrage – The Paris International Arbitration Journal, 2010, 181
“Choice of court and arbitration agreements and the review of the Brussels I Regulation”, IPRax – Praxis des internationalen privat- und verfahrensrecht, 2010, 121
“Unlawful Interference with international arbitration by national courts of the seat in the aftermath of Saipem v. Bangladesh”, Liber Amicorum Bernardo Cremades, Madrid, 2010, 993 (with L. Malintoppi)
“Interference by national courts with international arbitration: the situation after Saipem v. Bangladesh”, New Developments in International Commercial Arbitration 2009 (A. Müller, A. Rigozzi, eds.), Zürich, 2009, 1.
“Court Review of Competition Law Awards in Setting Aside and Enforcements Proceedings”, EU and US Antitrust Arbitration (G. Blanke, Ph. Landolt, eds.), Kluwer, 2010, § 35-001.
“Ascertaining the Content of the Applicable Law in International Commercial Arbitration”, Final Report of the Committee on International Commercial Arbitration of the International Law Association adopted at the Rio de Janeiro Conference of 2008 (co-rapporteur with Mark Friedman), Arbitration International, 2010, n. 2
“Chassés croisées franco-belge: à propos de l’affaire Cytec”, Rev. Arbitrage, 2007, 318 (note à Trib. Première instance de Bruxelles, 8 mars 2007) (with A. Mourre)
“Arbitration in EC Merger Control: Old Wine in a New Bottle”, European Journal of Business Law, 2007, 7
“L’insoutenable légèreté de l’ordre public (encore à propos du droit de la concurrence) », note à Tribunal Fédéral Suisse, 8 mars 2006, Revue de l’arbitrage, 2006, 769
“Arbitrato e norme imperative: oltre l’arbitrabilità”, AIDA – Annali Italiani del Diritto d’Autore, 2006, 111
“Controllo del lodo internazionale e ordine pubblico”, Riv. dell’arbitrato, 2006, 629
“L’illicéité «qui crève les yeux» : le critère de contrôle des sentences au regard de l’ordre public international”, Revue de l’arbitrage, 2005, 529 (note à Appel Paris, 18 novembre 2004, Thalès c. Euromissile)
“Towards finality in international arbitration : two steps forward and one step back”, J. of Int’l Arb., 2006, 171 (with A. Mourre)
“Arbitrato e diritto della concorrenza: il problema risolto e le questioni aperte”, Rivista dell’arbitrato, 2004, 1
“Antitrust: A Paradigm of the Relations Between Arbitration and Mandatory Rules – A Fresh Look at the ‘Second Look’ “, International Arbitration Law Review, 2004, 23
“The settlement of disputes in the Telecommunications Sector: NRAs vs Arbitration”, Report at the ICC Seminar on Dispute Settlement in the Telecommunications Sector, International Chamber of Commerce, September 2004″
“Mondialisation, juridiction, arbitrage: vers des lois d’application semi-immédiate?”, Revue critique de droit international privé, 2003, 1
“Arbitrato, diritto della concorrenza, diritto comunitario e regole di procedura nazionali”, Rivista dell’arbitrato, 1999, 665
La giurisdizione esecutiva e cautelare nei confronti degli Stati stranieri, Milan, Giuffré, 1992.
“Immunità degli Stati e ragion di Stato nella sentenza Al-Adsani della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo”, Int’l lis, 2002, 91
“The Freezing Of Assets Of International Terrorist Organizations”, Enforcing International Law Norms Against Terrorism (A. Bianchi, ed.), Hart Publishing, Oxford and Portland, 2004, 377-413 (with Mauro Megliani)
“La coercizione sui beni statali stranieri: l’Italia volta finalmente pagina”, Riv. dir. internaz., 1992, 356
“Protezione diplomatica delle società e degli azionisti e trattato di amicizia Italia-Stati Uniti: il caso Raytheon-Elsi davanti alla Corte internazionale di giustizia”, Diritto del commercio internazionale, 1990, 385
“Note on Cass. (s.u.) 4 maggio 1989, n. 2085 and Cass. (s.u.) 25 maggio 1989, n. 2502”, American Journal of International Law, 1990, 573
“A Trustee in Continental Europe: The Experience of the Bank for International Settlements”, Proceedings of the Fifteenth Session of the Hague Conference On Private International Law, The Hague, 1984, 124 and Netherlands Int. Law Rev., 1983, 330 (with G.K. Simons)
“Banca dei Regolamenti Internazionali”, Enciclopedia giuridica, Ist. Encicl. Ital., 1983
“La soluzione delle controversie tra Stati e stranieri mediante accordo internazionale: gli accordi tra Stati Uniti ed Iran”, Riv. dir. internaz., 1982, 299
“La prima fase del contenzioso relativo agli averi iraniani bloccati dagli Stati Uniti”, Riv. dir. internaz., 1981, 328-357
“Organizzazione intergovernativa marittima consultiva”, Enciclopedia del diritto, vol. XXIII.
“Sulle questioni preliminari nella procedura consultiva davanti alla Corte internazionale di giustizia”, Riv. dir. internaz., 1976, 677-709
“L’azione del Fondo Monetario Internazionale nel sistema delle Nazioni Unite”, Riv. dir. internaz. 1975, 557-583
“Il mercato unico dei servizi bancari e finanziari”, … (A. Tizzano, ed. ), Torino, Giappichelli, 2007
“Economic Rights and Freedoms: Whereto Europe?”, Mélanges pour Jean-Victor Louis, Bruylant, Bruxelles, 2003
“L’Unione ed i diritti fondamentali: un passo avanti e due indietro (sui diritti economici)?”, Diritto dell’Unione europea, 2003, 551
“La Corte di giustizia va alla Scala: normativa comunitaria sugli appalti e effetti delle sentenze interpretative”, Corriere giuridico, 2002, 247
“Diritti esclusivi: anche l’INAIL si infortuna” Il diritto dell’Unione Europea, 1999, 171
“Gestione collettiva del risparmio e operatori comunitari: il t.u.f. viola il Trattato CE”, Banca, borsa e titoli di credito, 1999, I, 470
“Regime delle ritenute sui finanziamenti esteri: incompatibilità con il diritto comunitario?”, Bollettino tributario, 1999, 1253-4
“Ostacoli alla libertà di stabilimento e diritti speciali: spunti in tema di farmacie e società «miste» comunali”, Giurisprudenza commerciale, 1998, I, 844 and Studi in onore del prof. Francesco Capotorti, II, Milano, Giuffré, 1999, 341
“La nuova disposizione sui servizi di interesse generale”, Il diritto dell’Unione Europea, 1998, 527
“Italian Report (and co-author of the General Report), J.-V. Louis (ed), Banking supervision in the European Community, Bruxelles, 1995.
“L’Italia e il mercato unico dei servizi bancari: un primo commento alla normativa di attuazione della Seconda direttiva bancaria”, Banca, borsa e titoli di credito, 1993, I, 465
“I limiti del mutuo riconoscimento nella libera prestazione dei servizi bancari nella Cee”, Zur Europaverträglichkeit im privatrechtlichen Bereich (F.-E. Klein, ed.) , Basel, 1991
“L’ambito di applicazione della legge del paese di origine nella libera prestazione dei servizi bancari nella CEE”, Foro italiano, 1990, IV, 454
“Some Legal Aspects of the European Monetary System”, Riv. dir. internaz., 1980, 330-354.
“Ancora sul carattere quasi-contenzioso della procedura ex art. 228, par. 1, al 2, del Trattato C.e.e.”, Riv. dir. internaz., 1979, 712
“La funzione consultiva della Corte comunitaria in materia di relazioni esterne”, Riv. dir. internaz., 1979, 116
Il diritto comunitario delle telecomunicazioni – un modello di liberalizzazione di un servizio pubblico, Torino, Giappichelli, 1999
Servizi essenziali e diritto comunitario (as editor), Torino, Giappichelli, 2001
Il Mercato Unico dei Servizi (as editor, with F. Bestagno), Giuffré, 2007
Codice delle telecomunicazioni, Torino, Giappichelli, 1998
“Decisioni di accettazione degli impegni e private enforcement del diritto antitrust”, Diritto del commercio internazionale, 2011, 1047 (with F. Russo)
“Partecipazione alle gare e regole di concorrenza”, Diritto del commercio internazionale, 2002, 805 (with Magnus Gustafsson)
“Full-function Joint Ventures under the Merger Regulation: the Need for a Clarification”, European Competition Law Review, 2003, 574-579 (with Magnus Gustafsson)
“Il nuovo quadro delle telecomunicazioni: Convergenza, concorrenza, regolazione e asimmetria”, Mercato, concorrenza e regole, 2002, 561 and Convergenza: verso il diritto della convergenza? (A. Morbidelli, F. Donati, eds), Torino, 2003, 105-136
“La «separazione strutturale» nel settore delle telecomunicazioni?”, Diritto del commercio internazionale, 2001, 605-623 (with Aurelio Pappalardo)
“E se la garanzia dello Stato non fosse valida? La Comunicazione in tema di garanzie pubbliche”, Il diritto dell’Unione Europea, 2000, 691-697
“Telecomunicazioni e televisione”, Il diritto privato dell’Unione Europea (A. Tizzano, ed.), Giappichelli, Torino, 2000, 485-565
“Un primo confronto tra la liberalizzazione delle telecomunicazioni nel sistema del WTO e della Comunità Europea”, in Atti della II Conferenza dell’Associazione Italiana di Diritto Internazionale, Napoli 1998, 231
“Simmetria e asimmetria nel diritto comunitario delle telecomunicazioni”, Diritto dell’informazione e dell’informatica, 1997, 501
“L’azione comunitaria in materia di telecomunicazioni”, Il diritto dell’unione europea, 1996, 1093
“La liberalizzazione delle telecomunicazioni in Italia : la decisione ex art. 90(3) del Trattato CE nel caso Omnitel”, Diritto del commercio internazionale, 1996, 75-102
“Profili di diritto comunitario del mercato dell’energia elettrica”, Rivista italiana di diritto pubblico comunitario, 1995, 431
“Liquidazione dell’EFIM e norme comunitarie in tema di aiuti: Il problema degli effetti delle garanzie dello Stato a favore delle imprese pubbliche”, Dir. del commercio internaz., 1993, 539
The most significant experience of Luca Radicati di Brozolo as arbitrator and counsel includes the following cases.
Interviewees highlight Luca Radicati di Brozolo ‘s “razor-sharp legal mind” and note that he is “driven and passionate.” He is well known both in Italy and across Europe both for his academic contributions to the field of international arbitration law and for his experience as arbitrator in commercial and high-profile Energy Charter Treaty arbitrations.